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Reproductive Health (Amount of Weight-Gain allowed in Pregnancy) ( Birth Control-- choices/ Patient hand-out) (Annual Pelvic exams). Antenatal Steroids Reduce Intraventricular Hemorrhage Risk in Preterm Babies.  ( Warm compresses/ Reduction of Perineal Trauma). (Switching contraceptives) (LA reversible contraceptives) (PET) (Sexual assault) (IUD inserion after an abortion) ( Perforated IUDs) (Embryo preservation prior to CA-TX) (Thyroid/ Preg) ( Perinatal GBS) ( Medical eligibility for initiating contraception) ( IP-Group B Strep infection/ NB) (CIs to OCPs) (IUDs) ( ED/ SWT)    ( Menopausal estrogen/ Levonorgestrel IUD) ( FP exam after pregnancy termination) (Sexual assault screening); ( When to start contraception, after giving birth) (Revised guidelines for contraception use in PP period); (PALM-COEIN/ AUB--FIGO classification) (Gynecological CA--F/U) (VB after Multiple-- C/Ss)

·        Contraception - assessment

·         Contraception - emergency

·         Contraception - barrier methods and spermicides

·         Contraception - combined hormonal methods

·         Contraception - IUS/IUD

·         Contraception - natural family planning

·         Contraception - progestogen-only methods

·         Contraception - sterilization


December 2011 

Contraception for HIV-Infected Women

What's the best contraceptive for HIV-infected women? To choose the right form of birth control, clinicians and patients must consider medication interactions, transmission to uninfected partners, and disease progression. Because pregnancy carries significant health risks for HIV-infected women, close attention to contraception is especially important in this group.

Condoms are the only method that prevents both transmission of HIV and unintended pregnancy. However, condoms have only modest efficacy for contraception, so most HIV-infected women should combine them with a second method.

Spermicide may raise the risk of HIV transmission by causing genital irritation. Spermicide-based methods are rarely the best choice for HIV-infected women.

What about hormonal methods? Although a recent, widely publicized study indicates that injected progestin ("depo") may raise the risk of HIV transmission, other studies have demonstrated no such impact. On balance, current evidence supports that hormonal contraceptives do not raise the risk of HIV disease progression or transmission to partners. Contraceptive pills, patch, ring, injections, and implants may be used without restriction for HIV-infected women who aren't taking antiretrovirals.

However, hormonal contraceptives do interact with some antiretroviral medications. According to the CDC's Medical Eligibility for Initiating Contraception, both combined estrogen/progestin and progestin-only pills get a "3" for women taking protease inhibitors and a "2" for women taking Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI) antiretrovirals. Women taking Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) antiretrovirals may use combined OCs, progestin-only pills, and progestin injections or implants without restriction.

What about IUDs? Although evidence is limited, studies show that IUDs do not raise the risk of HIV transmission or complications. HIV-infected women who are clinically well can choose either the copper or progestin IUD. (Both get a "2" from the CDC.) Women with AIDS who are ill may choose either IUD if there's no better contraceptive option for them; but clinicians should watch carefully for signs of pelvic infection following insertion.

Providing high-quality contraception to women with HIV can prolong their lives and prevent HIV transmission to others.

We appreciate your feedback! Please write us at with any questions, comments or additional resources to add to our list.

Helpful Resources

Medical Eligibility for Initiating Contraception

HIV Drug Interactions Information

-------------------------------------------------------------------------- (Guideline for Pregnancy Wt Gain) (Guidelines; Labor Induction)

Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring: nomenclature, interpretation, and general management principles.;   

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Diabetes and cancer (Abnormal sex hormone levels & fracture risk in older men) (T & PDE5-I: Vascular function in ED) (OAB, BOO, BPH) (Metformin+ Simvastatin, for PCOS) (PCOS--Rotterdam criteria, Labs, H & PE, US) (FSFI) (Sexual Health of Females)—Medical & psychological causes News From AAPM 2015: Slideshow ADA Publishes Diabetes 'Standards of Care' for PCPs. -- Lidocaine Spray Reduces Pain of IUD Insertion Uterine Cooling Reduces Bleeding in Cesareans Metoclopramide and Diphenhydramine Blunt Pregnancy Headaches. ACIP Updates Recommendations, Adds 9-Valent HPV Vaccine Metformin May Edge Glyburide in Gestational Diabetes. Issues Folate Recommendations for Women DM definition. Guidelines Updated on Thromboembolic Disease in Pregnancy Free Testosterone May Help Diagnose Hypogonadism IUD User Guide IUD Fact Sheet IUD Consent Form Contraceptive Placement at Delivery Trumps Delayed Placement.

html Metformin Plus Lifestyle Maximizes Benefit in PCOS? RCOG Guidelines Update Management of Severe Perineal Tears. Women Receiving Insufficient Iodine Supplementation. ...that-- women who are pregnant, lactating, or planning to conceive take a daily supplement of 150 μg iodine. ACOG Updates- Pregnancy Nausea/Vomiting Treatment Guidelines. ACOG Updates -Emergency Contraception Guidelines; Estriol Vaginal Gel -May Benefit Some Postmenopausal Women; Two Antidepressants Linked to Birth Defects.; FGM Guidelines.;





Pregnancy at Risk: Gestational Onset-- (PDF) (Pre-conception counseling) ****

Nurse-Midwifery Policies and Guidelines Policies and Guidelines for the ... (PDF) ( Pre Conception Care) ( Breast) ( Tanner Stages)

OCP: --November 6, 2008-- The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ...

insulin glulisine injection for use in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes;

a low-dose, extended-cycle, oral contraceptive regimen; and

dexmedetomidine HCl infusion for procedural sedation. (TX of VM symptoms in Menopause) (First Trimester Bleeding) (Wt gain in Pregnancy) (Germ Cell) (Leydig Cell) (High Prolactin) (Progesterone) (Wt gain in Pregnancy) (IUDs: Pearls)************* (CP-Puberty; LH level) ( Female Sexual Dysfunction Disoredr-DSM IV) ( PMDD--Criteria) ( DHEAS/ DHEA) ( Drug Tx--Premature Ejaculation) ( OCP) (Managing VM symptoms during Menopausal Transition) ( Hot  Flashes) ( Menopause/ Preventive Care) ( PM--Dyspareunia) (Contraceptives) (Prophylactic Oxytocin)  ( Dosing of --MgSo4-- in PET) *** ( Eclampsia) 

( Oxytocin Protocol) ( Obstetric Hemorrhage) ( Decreasing Obstetric Errors) ( Operative Vaginal Delivery) 

(Causes of Maternal Deaths) ( Postnatal Dep screen at 2 months) ( C-Section/ Illustrations) (Bleeding Disorders: Menorrhagia/ PPH) (FHR monitoring Guidelines) ************ (Menstrual disturbances in Peri-Menopausal women) (Predictors of Pregnancy Success--Cardiac activity, GS diameter, Yolk sac diameter @ 33 -36 days by TV ultrasound). (PMS) (GnRH agonists) (GnRH antagonists) (Guidelines for hospitalised patients with high BG) (PMS--Sertraline) ( Perimenopausal abnormal bleeding) (Endometriosis); ( Endometriosis) ( Leuprolide + ...) ( E2 Spray--Hot Flashes) ( Gynecological/ Female Disorders) ( AUB) ( AUB) ( Uterine Fibroids) (Menorrhagia/ VED) (PPH) ( PCOS--Orlistat); ( Galactorrhea in a non-pregnant woman) (Hypogonadism) (Graves Disease--Tx & F/U) ( Hyponatremia with hypervolemia or euvolemia --Tolvaptan) (Candesartan for Proteinuria) (V. atrophy) ( Extended Regimen Contraception)[pointer]=0&tx_cortlandtmagissue_pi1[mode]=1&tx_cortlandtmagissue_pi1[showUid]=1847 ( Subclinical Hypothyroidism) ( Continuous Contracep) ( Pan-Hypopituitarism) ( Emergency Contraception; Electrolyte abnormalities) ( 5 of 11 symptoms to be present for PMD) ( Pelvic Floor Disorders)

In addition to fibroids, other causes of abnormal uterine bleeding include--

endometrial polyps, adenomyosis, anovulation, endometrial hyperplasia and cancer, cervicitis, cervical cancer, complications of pregnancy, hypothyroidism, and inherited or acquired clotting disorders due to systemic disease.;jama_301_1_82?node_id=amacme_course;jama301/1/82 (Fibroid) (PM Hormonal Therapy) (R/ O-- Adrenal Insufficiency) (DMPA—SE) (Endometrial bleeding) (Heavy Menstrual Bleeding) (VB after C/S) (Nausea/ Vomiting in Pregnancy) (Rosiglitazone/ SEs) (CS) (Mental disorders/ Thyroid disorders) (EPF) (IBD/ Pregnancy) (AN/ Pregnancy) (Dietary MN/ urinary incontinence) (Kegel’s exercises) (ED)

Although there is no preferred first-line diagnostic test, initial diagnostic evaluation should usually consist only of a--

fasting serum glucose level and lipid panel, thyroid-stimulating hormone test, and morning total testosterone level.

Optional laboratory tests may include complete blood count; free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels; sex hormone–binding globulin test; and/or urinalysis. (Prempro) (Primary/ Secondary dysmenorrhea)

Celecoxib in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: results from two randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, crossover studies (Dysmenorrhea) (Contraceptives/ VTE) (III- T: Uterine bleeding) (Abnormal cervical screen; algorithm) (OCPs; AEs)   ; (Physician Locator) ********Reproductive Medicine (Contraception) ******Guideline (Glyburide; Drug interactions) (Glucose control; critically ill) (Insulin Replacement Therapy) (Screening for Gestational DM) (Gestational HTN) (Progesterone-only pill) (DMPA Inj.) (Gabapentin; Hot flashes) (Risks of HRT) (SC - Hypothyroidism) (Grave’s Thyroid disease) (TVT procedure for SUI)  (Endocrinology/ Guidelines) TX) (Hormones) (Hormone levels); ; (Cotisol, aldosterone levels); -- (Cosyntrophin test) (Menorrhagia; Vaginal danazol) (Hyperthyroidism/ Pregnancy: Graves Disease) (RF for Rec. Preg loss) (RF for Rec Preg loss) (Medical TX of Uterine fibroids) (Acromegaly)

Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. (Evaluation of E. Prostate) (Dynamic MRI for LUT symptoms in Women) (Menopause) (HT for menopause: ET---Ut CA; ET + PT---Breast CA?) (HMB; Tranexamic acid 650 mg tabs/ oral)

http://www (Treatment of early pregnancy loss) (Levonorgestrel-- IUD--SE) --Lowest effective estrogen dose for hot flashes (Jan 2008);,%20No.%201)-- Today's trends in hormonal contraceptives (Iodine intake in Pregnancy) (Abnormal Uterine Bleeding) Antenatal Steroids Reduce Intraventricular Hemorrhage Risk in Preterm Babies. (Stillbirth Management) (Pt in Labor/ Group B status unknown) (Early Oxytocin/ Arrested labor) for testing for Pre-diabetes) (Syphilis screening in pregnant women). (DKA--In Pregnancy) *** ( LN--IUD/ Menorrhagia, Dysmenorrhea) ( Chronic Pelvic Pain) (Guidelines for ED); ACP Issues Guidelines for Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction. (When to start Hormonal Contraceptives) (Hormone therapy following menopause) (Non-Prescription contraceptives)
Women urged to seek STD testing within 12 months of first intercourse. (OHSS)--Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (Endometriosis: Medical/ Surgical/ Ablation TX) (ED) (EC: Levonorgestrel 2.5 VS. Ulipristal 30) for hot flushes in men)**********
Polycystic ovary syndrome. (21/7 --OCPs) OCs) (OCs...benefits) (EC) (Progestin Implant) (Abnormal UB) (HRT S/P Menopause) (PTU, Methimazole SEs) (PMS--Diag/ TX) Pregabalin Linked to Major Birth Defects. at 39 Weeks Is Better for Mother and Baby. IgM Confirmed in CNS of Neonates with Microcephaly. Better Than Blood for Zika Testing, CDC Says. Folate, B12-- in Pregnancy 'Ups' Autism Risk. Pre-Eclampsia Tests Approved in England---Triage PlGF test and the Elecsys immunoassay sFlt-1/PlGF ratio. Skin and Tissue Lesions 'Point to' Zika Virus Infection. New AAP Guideline: Brief Unexplained Events in Infants WHO Advises 8 Weeks of Safe Sex After Return From Zika Areas. Updates Interim Guidance on Zika Testing and Interpretation recent study that found cardiovascular benefit in starting hormone replacement therapy (HRT) within 6 years after menopause, but not 10 years after... Universal Depression Screening Effective, Feasible. Lifestyle Interventions Improve Pregnancy Outcomes.



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